What is Hurricane?
Hurricane is a type of storm, which is called “tropical cyclone”. Hurricanes are the most powerful and harmful storms among tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclones move in a low pressure weather system that genrate over tropical or sub-tropical waters. They bring storms, but the fronts (the boundary separating two different air masses of different densities) are not formed.
Tropical cyclones originate in the Atlantic basin. The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the eastern North Pacific Ocean, and sometimes the central North-Pacific Ocean.
Tropical cyclones are like engines that require warm, moist air as fuel for their operation. This is because they only form in tropical regions where ocean temperatures are 27 °C at a depth of at least 50 meters below the surface. When the wind blows west over the ocean, the water evaporates and rises, forming cumulonimbus clouds. After this the process of formation of tropical cyclones begins.
This process passes through the following four stages-
→ Beginning with a tropical barrier
→ tropical depression
→ Tropical storm, which eventually turns into a cyclone.
–At speeds of 25–38 mph (40–60 km/h), this barrier turns into a depression, turning into a typhoon as soon as its speed exceeds 39 m/h. When the speed of this storm reaches 74 m/h (120 km/h), it is officially named “cyclone”.
When the maximum speed of a storm is 74 m/h then it is called “Hurricane”.
Category of Hurricane
Hurricane intensity is measured by the ‘Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale’. On the basis of maximum sustainable wind speed in this scale, hurricanes are divided into the following five categories-
→ Category 1: Speed 74-95 m/h (120-153 km/h)
→ Category 2: Speed 96-110 m/h (155-177 km/h)
→ Category 3: Speed 111-129 m/h (179-208 km/h)
→ Category 4: Speed 130-156 m/h (209-251 km/h)
→ Category 5: Speed 157 m/h (253 km/h)
Most powerfull Hurricane
The most powerful hurricane ever to hit the North-East Caribbean island was Irma. It is noteworthy that for about 24 hours, the wind speed of this storm was 185 m/h (about 300 km/h), which is only a proof of the severity of this destructive cyclone. The so-called “hurricane season” in the Ribian Sea begins on 1 June and ends on 30 November. Although hurricanes can come before and after this time limit.
Avrage number of Hurricane every year
An average of 12 hurricanes develop in the Atlantic basin every year.
This year Hurricane name
This year’s(2022) 21-name list is as follows: Alex, Bonnie, Colin, Danielle, Earl, Fiona, Gaston, Hermine, Ian, Julia, Karl, Lisa, Martin, Nicole, Owen, Paula, Richard, Shary, Tobias, Virginie and Walter.
On the basis of the list prepared by the World Meteorological Organization for the year 2017, the storms that followed Harvey and Irma in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the North Atlantic were named Jose, Katia and Lee.
How is the Hurricane named?
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the US Department of Commerce is the world’s most advanced hurricane observation system, through which these storms are predicted and monitored.
Hurricane are given short, distinctive and easy to remember names. This is done because it makes it easier to identify and describe them and to report their arrival to hundreds of stations, coastal bases and ships at sea.
Six lists of names for cyclones that occur in each tropical cyclone basin of the world are prepared by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialized organization of the United Nations.
Therefore, between the year 2017-22, 21 names have been fixed for the cyclones that come every year. The point to note here is that the list of 2017 will be reused in the year 2023.
If a cyclone is dead (eg Andrew in 1992, Katrina in 2005 or Sandy in 2012), its name is ‘retired’ and given a new name.
If there are more than 21 storms in any one season, then these storms are named on the basis of Greek alphabet, such as- Alpha, Beta, Gamma etc.
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